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建模与仿真服务化研究综述

张淼 许凯 彭勇 尹全军

张淼, 许凯, 彭勇, 尹全军. 建模与仿真服务化研究综述. 自动化学报, 2023, 49(8): 1601−1620 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c220555
引用本文: 张淼, 许凯, 彭勇, 尹全军. 建模与仿真服务化研究综述. 自动化学报, 2023, 49(8): 1601−1620 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c220555
Zhang Miao, Xu Kai, Peng Yong, Yin Quan-Jun. Overview of servitization of modeling and simulation. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2023, 49(8): 1601−1620 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c220555
Citation: Zhang Miao, Xu Kai, Peng Yong, Yin Quan-Jun. Overview of servitization of modeling and simulation. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2023, 49(8): 1601−1620 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c220555

建模与仿真服务化研究综述

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c220555
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(62103420)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张淼:国防科技大学系统工程学院讲师. 2022年获得国防科技大学博士学位. 主要研究方向为云仿真. E-mail: zhangmiao15@nudt.edu.cn

    许凯:国防科技大学系统工程学院讲师. 2020年获得国防科技大学博士学位. 主要研究方向为行为建模, 云仿真. E-mail: xukai09@nudt.edu.cn

    彭勇:国防科技大学系统工程学院副研究员. 2011年获得国防科技大学博士学位. 主要研究方向为并行与分布式仿真, 云仿真. 本文通信作者. E-mail: yongpeng@nudt.edu.cn

    尹全军:国防科技大学系统工程学院研究员. 2005年获得国防科技大学博士学位. 主要研究方向为行为建模, 云仿真. E-mail: yin_quanjun@163.com

Overview of Servitization of Modeling and Simulation

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (62103420)
More Information
    Author Bio:

    ZHANG Miao Lecturer at the College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree from National University of Defense Technology in 2022. His main research interest is cloud simulation

    XU Kai Lecturer at the College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree from National University of Defense Technology in 2020. His research interest covers behavior modeling and cloud simulation

    PENG Yong Associate researcher at the College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree from National University of Defense Technology in 2011. His research interest covers parallel and distributed simulation and cloud simulation. Corresponding author of this paper

    YIN Quan-Jun Researcher at the College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree from National University of Defense Technology in 2005. His research interest covers behavior modeling and cloud simulation

  • 摘要: 建模与仿真服务化是提升用户体验, 支撑按需访问建模与仿真能力的有效手段. 本文首先从建模与仿真服务的访问、开发以及运行与管理三个层面对建模与仿真服务化的概念进行辨析; 并从服务的分类、抽象层级、基本元素和状态四个角度对建模与仿真服务的特征进行阐述. 然后从基于网页的仿真、基于面向服务架构 (Service oriented architecture, SOA) 的仿真系统开发和服务化基础设施三个维度对建模与仿真服务化的发展历程进行梳理. 在此基础之上, 分析了基于云的建模与仿真服务化的构建原则、基本架构和应用模式, 并从访问、开发以及运行与管理三个层面给出建模与仿真服务化相关的支撑技术. 最后, 从理论体系、关键技术和新兴技术三个方面给出进一步发展建模与仿真服务化的建议.
  • 图  1  MSaaS服务模型[16]

    Fig.  1  Service model in MSaaS[16]

    图  2  建模与仿真服务化通用架构

    Fig.  2  General architecture of MSaaS

    图  3  建模与仿真服务化应用示意图

    Fig.  3  Application schematic diagram of MSaaS

    图  4  云仿真部署形态示意图[16]

    Fig.  4  Schematic diagram of cloud simulation deployment form[16]

    图  5  建模与仿真服务化关键支撑技术

    Fig.  5  Key supporting technologies for MSaaS

    表  1  与现有相关综述的异同

    Table  1  Differences and similarities with existing reviews

    文献名称发表时间主要内容与本文异同点
    Modeling and simulation as a cloud service: A survey[16]2013首次给出MSaaS的服务模型, 探讨MSaaS架构和部署模式, 分析MSaaS可能面临的安全威胁, 简要介绍服务组合技术1)本文同样对MSaaS的服务模型、架构、部署模式进行探讨; 2)该文缺乏对MSaaS发展历程的梳理, 且对实现MSaaS所需的关键技术讨论较少
    面向服务的建模与仿真技术综述[17]2013对SOA与HLA、DEVS、MDA和云计算等规范或技术的结合进行研究, 探讨基于SOA实现建模与仿真的服务化1)本文同样对SOA在仿真领域的应用进行深入探讨; 2)受限于当时的技术发展, 该文缺乏对微服务、纳米服务等SOA新形态的介绍
    Architectural design space for modeling and simulation as a service: A review[18]2020针对MSaaS的架构设计空间进行深入研究, 给出MSaaS架构的分类标准, 指出MSaaS架构需要具备的核心能力1)本文同样对MSaaS的架构进行探讨, 并给出通用架构; 2)该文只综述了与MSaaS架构相关的工作, 缺乏对MSaaS的相关概念、发展历程、支撑技术的讨论
    Towards cloud-native simulations —— Lessons learned from the front-line of cloud computing[19]2021阐述云计算范式的发展对仿真领域的影响, 提出云原生仿真参考模型, 分析微服务、纳米服务对云原生仿真的影响1)本文同样讨论了单体服务、微服务、纳米服务等技术对云原生仿真的影响; 2)该文缺乏对实现建模与仿真服务化所需技术的整体性阐述
    网络化仿真及其发展趋势[20]2021给出网络化仿真的含义与特征, 阐述网络化仿真发展历程, 探讨未来网络化仿真发展趋势1)本文同样对建模与仿真服务化的发展历程和未来趋势进行深入讨论; 2)该文对建模与仿真服务化发展历程的介绍不够全面, 也没有给出关键的支撑技术
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  网页技术的发展对WBS的影响

    Table  2  Impact of the development of web technology on WBS

    类别时间跨度主要特征仿真应用情况优点缺点
    Web 1.01996 ~ 2004用户只能“读”取网站上的内容, “写”的能力受限应用较少, 更多的是证明可以基于网页实现仿真, 而不是需要使用网页进行仿真简化访问; 降低对用户端设备的依赖稳定性易受影响; 图形化能力有限; 用户对仿真的控制手段也相对匮乏
    Web 2.02004 ~ 至今用户间可以自由地交互, 用户既可以“读”也可以“写”应用领域大大扩展, 并被吸纳到多种仿真标准, 如HLA Evolved广泛访问; 支持用户通过浏览器实现仿真服务的组合与集成难以有效管理大量服务资源; 无状态的网页服务难以保存模型状态
    Web 3.0未成熟主要强调对用户数字资产的尊重与保护, 核心技术是区块链还处于探索阶段促进仿真资源的共享; 增强用户数据的隐私保护核心的区块链技术仍面临伸缩性和吞吐率的问题; 与仿真结合的研究较少
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  面向服务架构的不同实现技术的对比

    Table  3  Comparison of different implementation technologies for service oriented architecture

    类别技术/标准/架构粒度部署策略可移植性自动化部署仿真应用情况服务状态
    组件技术CORBA、BOM、DCOM等单体服务虚拟机一般不支持应用广泛支持
    网页服务WSDL + SOAP + UDDI单体服务虚拟机较好支持应用广泛不支持
    微服务微服务架构微服务容器较好支持发展阶段支持
    纳米服务无服务器架构函数FaaS平台一般支持探索阶段不支持
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同计算基础设施的对比

    Table  4  Comparison of different computing infrastructures

    类别统一运维管理远端访问服务化虚拟化弹性扩展使用成本安全性
    本地集群不支持不支持不支持不支持较差
    网格计算支持支持支持不支持一般一般
    云计算支持支持支持支持良好一般
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-06
  • 录用日期:  2022-12-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-28
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