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机器意识研究综述

秦瑞琳 周昌乐 晁飞

秦瑞琳, 周昌乐, 晁飞. 机器意识研究综述. 自动化学报, 2020, 45(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200043
引用本文: 秦瑞琳, 周昌乐, 晁飞. 机器意识研究综述. 自动化学报, 2020, 45(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200043
Qin Rui-Lin, Zhou Chang-Le, Chao Fei. A survey on machine consciousness. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2020, 45(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200043
Citation: Qin Rui-Lin, Zhou Chang-Le, Chao Fei. A survey on machine consciousness. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2020, 45(x): 1−17 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200043

机器意识研究综述

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c200043
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(61273338, 61673322)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    秦瑞琳:厦门大学信息学院人工智能系博士研究生. 主要研究方向为机器意识,情感计算和机器舞蹈.E-mail: qqqrrrlll_2008@163.com

    周昌乐:厦门大学信息学院人工智能系教授,主要研究方向为机器意识,脑机融合和机器歌舞. 本文通信作者.E-mail: dozero@xmu.edu.cn

    晁飞:厦门大学信息学院人工智能系副教授,主要研究方向为智能机器人,机器学习和最优化算法.E-mail: fchao@xmu.edu.cn

A Survey on Machine Consciousness

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (61273338, 61673322)
  • 摘要: 意识问题是尚未解决的重大哲学问题与科学问题. 机器意识是人工智能最前沿的研究领域之一. 研发意识机器人对于人工智能与机器人学的发展具有重要科学意义与应用价值. 本文首先介绍了意识与感受性的相关概念和理论, 然后详细讨论了机器意识的概念与研究分类、实现方法与计算模型, 重点论述了实现机器意识的量子方法, 最后总结了机器意识目前面临的困境与未来可能的发展, 并给出了一套机器意识总体实现框架.
  • 图  1  机器意识研究内容与方法分类

    Fig.  1  The taxonomy of contents and methods of machine consciousness

    图  2  意识的困难问题与解释鸿沟

    Fig.  2  The hard problem of consciousness and the explanatory gap

    图  3  全局工作空间理论的基本思想

    Fig.  3  The basic idea of global workspace theory

    图  4  整合信息理论的基本思想

    Fig.  4  The basic idea of integrated information theory

    图  5  高阶表征理论的基本思想

    Fig.  5  The basic idea of higher-order representation theory

    图  6  注意图式理论的基本思想

    Fig.  6  The basic idea of attention schema theory

    图  7  经典神经元和量子神经元

    Fig.  7  The classical neuron and quantum neuron

    图  8  机器意识总体实现框架

    Fig.  8  The overall implementation framework of machine consciousness

    表  1  意识的哲学理论

    Table  1  Philosophical theories of consciousness

    理论名称 英文 主要观点
    一元论 Monism 意识或物质是世界的本源
    二元论 Dualism 意识和物质都是世界的本源
    神秘论 Mysticism 意识是人类自身永远无法理解的
    还原论 Reductionism 意识可还原为大脑神经细胞的物理过程
    涌现论 Emergentism 意识是大脑神经元整体相互作用涌现出的
    泛心论 Panpsychism 意识是物质固有的本质
    副现象论 Epiphenomenalism 意识是行为产生的附带现象而不起任何作用
    幻觉论 Illusionism 意识是一种幻觉
    唯识论 Vijñāptimātratāsiddhi 五蕴八识理论
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  意识的科学理论

    Table  2  Scientific theories of consciousness

    理论名称 英文 简称 提出时间 主要研究者 主要观点
    高阶表征理论[31] Higher-order representation theory HOR 1968 Armstrong、Rosenthal 意识由对一阶心理状态的知觉或想法构成
    全局工作空间理论[32] Global workspace theory GWT 1988 Baars、Dehaene 意识产生于全局工作空间
    多重草稿理论[1] Multiple drafts theory MDT 1991 Dennett 意识产生于大脑中叙事脚本间的竞争
    量子意识理论[7] Quantum consciousness QC 1994 Penrose、Hameroff 意识产生于大脑中的量子计算
    Damasio意识理论[33] Damasio's theory 1999 Damasio 在原我的基础上产生核心意识和扩展意识
    动态核心假说[34] Dynamic core hypothesis DCH 2000 Edelman、Tononi 意识产生于时空上高兴奋性的神经集团, 即动态核心
    感觉运动理论[35] Sensorimotor theory SMT 2001 O’Regan 意识产生于身体的感觉运动
    整合信息理论[36] Integrated information theory IIT 2004 Tononi、Koch 意识产生于大脑对信息的整合
    注意图式理论[37] Attention schema theory AST 2013 Graziano 意识产生于注意图式
    预测处理理论[38] Predictive processing theory PPT 2013 Clark、Seth 意识产生于大脑对信息的预测
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  机器意识研究分类

    Table  3  The taxonomy of machine consciousness

    类别 问题归属 研究内容 具体分类 研究举例
    感知意识 容易 机器通过外部传感器和内部感知模型感知外界各种刺激并产生行为 视觉 图像感知[45]
    听觉 声音感知[46]
    触觉 皮肤触摸感知[47]
    嗅觉 化学物质感知[48]
    味觉 化学物质感知[49]
    认知意识 容易 构建机器内部认知模型, 使机器具有意识的认知特性及其行为表现 语言 语音识别和表达[50]
    想象 梦境与意识[51]
    记忆 情景记忆[52]
    情感 情感识别和表达[53]
    机制意识 容易 研究人类意识的产生机制, 并在此基础上进行机器模拟实现 脑科学研究 意识的神经相关物[54-58]
    意识科学理论 GWT[32]、IIT[36]、HOR[31]、AST[37]、QC[7]
    机器模拟实现 心智建模[59]、银纳米线神经网络[60]、大脑模型[61]
    自我意识 困难 如何使机器具有内省反思能力, 并能意识到“我”是区别于其他个体的存在 自我模拟 机械臂自我建模[15]、“粒子”机器人自我修复[16]
    镜像认知 镜像测试[62]
    高阶理论 CiceRobot[63]、内部言语[64]、GMU-BICA[65]
    其他方面 自我意识模型ARTSELF[66]、本体感受传感器[67]
    感受意识 困难 如何使机器具有感受性 能否实现 能实现[68,69]、不能实现[70,71]
    实现方法 Aleksander公理系统[72]、感觉运动融合[73]、计算相关物[74]、大脑时空结构[43]、Meme[75]、内稳态[76]、合成现象学[77]
    系统开发 交互式教学机器人[78]
    意识测试 困难 检测机器是否具有意识, 意识能力程度如何 图灵测试 完全图灵测试[79]
    量表 ConsScale量表[80]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  机器意识的实现方法

    Table  4  Implementation methods of machine consciousness

    实现方法 具体内容 实现机器意识的可能性
    符号计算 数理逻辑、计算推理 不可能
    人工神经网络 模拟神经元活动机制建模 不可能
    生物神经网络 用生物神经元搭建神经网络 有可能
    量子计算 根据量子特有性质解释意识并建模 有可能
    脑机融合 构造脑机混合的意识机器 有可能
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  机器意识的主要理论与计算模型

    Table  5  Main theories and computational models of machine consciousness

    理论 基本观点 研究内容 研究举例 面临问题
    GWT[32] 意识产生于全局工作空间 理论研究 GNWT[89]、GNWT+PPT[90]、GWT+元认知[91]、GWT+SMT+PPT[92] 缺少神经层面的解释[93]
    机器实现 LIDA[94,95]、CERA-CRANIUM[96]
    IIT[36] 意识产生于大脑对信息的整合 理论研究 IIT 3.0[97]、IIT+幻觉论[98]、IIT+QC[99] 计算复杂性、还原论、泛心论[100]
    机器实现 工具箱PyPhi[101]、Aleksander公理系统实现[72]、XCR-1[73]
    HOR[31] 意识由对一阶心理状态的知觉或想法构成 理论研究 SOMA[102]、情感意识高阶理论[103] 意识统一性、无穷倒退[31]
    机器实现 Cicerobot[63]、CLARION[104]、GMU-BICA[65]、eBICA[105]
    AST[37] 意识产生于注意图式 理论研究 理论验证[106]、AST+PPT[107] 理论本身和具体实现方法有待完善[108]
    机器实现 注意系统[109]、CONAIM[110]
    QC[7] 意识产生于大脑中的量子计算 量子与意识的相关性 量子相干、量子叠加、量子纠缠、量子塌缩等[111,112] 缺乏实验证实、量子计算机成本高[7]
    大脑中是否存在量子计算 存在[113,114]、不存在[115,116]
    建模方法 量子力学的数学形式以及量子逻辑[117,118]、量子计算+经典计算[119,120]、量子计算+神经生物学[121,122]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  量子和意识的可能关联

    Table  6  The possible relationship between quantum and consciousness

    量子
    性质
    含义 与意识的可能关联
    量子
    相干
    粒子之间存在干涉效应 意识统一性的物理基础
    量子
    叠加
    粒子可以同时处于多种状态 前意识与潜意识加工、梦与意识改变状态
    量子
    纠缠
    粒子间可以存在非局域性关联 联想记忆、非局域性意识关联
    量子
    塌缩
    粒子可从叠加态塌缩到本征态 从前意识到意识的转变
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  关于大脑中是否存在量子计算的观点

    Table  7  Views on the existence of quantum computing in the brain

    观点 代表人物 主要理由 研究建议 机器意识实现
    存在[113,114] Hameroff、Penrose 经典计算不足以描述意识的复杂性 实验验证 量子计算可能实现机器意识
    不存在[115,116] Tegmark、Baars 大脑中不具备量子计算的客观条件 寻找NCC 采用经典神经网络模拟即可实现
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  意识量子计算模型的主要构建方法

    Table  8  Main methods on constructing quantum computational model of consciousness

    方法 研究举例
    量子力学的数学形式、量子逻辑 CQN[136]、量子Braitenberg小车[117,118]、量子情感[137]
    量子计算+经典计算 QML[138]、QNN[120,139]
    量子计算+脑科学和神经生物学 BEC[121,140]、仿生认知架构[122]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  意识机器人实例对比分析

    Table  9  Comparative analysis of conscious robot examples

    实例 Santos的机器人[95] XCR-1[73] CiceRobot[63]
    实验条件 仿真平台V-REP、Pioneer 3-AT虚拟机器人 自制三轮机器人 RWI B21机器人
    感知意识 听觉(声呐) 视觉、听觉、触觉(压力) 视觉
    认知意识 情感表达(面部表情) 语音识别和表达、情感理解, 选择性注意, 情感记忆 选择性注意、长期记忆
    机制意识 GWT IIT HOR
    自我意识 自我对话、内部言语、内省反思 自我动作想象, 内省反思, 自我预期
    感受意识 不考虑 类模态(amodal)感受
    实现方法 机器人操作系统ROS 硬接线神经回路、联想神经网络、信息整合、感觉运动整合 概念层: 概念空间中的几何计算. 语言层: KL-ONE系统实现的语义网络
    认知架构 LIDA HCA 基于HOR提出
    实现目标 室内虚拟环境移动导航与避障 目标搜寻与检测, 验证HCA 博物馆导游机器人
    主要问题 和意识脑机制的关联不明确 机器人缺少动作的长期记忆 数据量庞大, 动态场景的实时三维重建只能在简单环境下实现
    未来改进 真实环境下移动导航与避障 具有更多神经元和突触的神经网络 机器人能够对所有过去经验进行总结
    下载: 导出CSV
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