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穿戴式柔性下肢助力机器人发展现状及关键技术分析

李剑锋 李国通 张雷雨 杨东升 王海东

李剑锋, 李国通, 张雷雨, 杨东升, 王海东. 穿戴式柔性下肢助力机器人发展现状及关键技术分析. 自动化学报, 2020, 46(3): 427-438. doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c180286
引用本文: 李剑锋, 李国通, 张雷雨, 杨东升, 王海东. 穿戴式柔性下肢助力机器人发展现状及关键技术分析. 自动化学报, 2020, 46(3): 427-438. doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c180286
LI Jian-Feng, LI Guo-Tong, ZHANG Lei-Yu, YANG Dong-Sheng, WANG Hai-Dong. Advances and Key Techniques of Soft Wearable Lower Limb Power-assisted Robots. ACTA AUTOMATICA SINICA, 2020, 46(3): 427-438. doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c180286
Citation: LI Jian-Feng, LI Guo-Tong, ZHANG Lei-Yu, YANG Dong-Sheng, WANG Hai-Dong. Advances and Key Techniques of Soft Wearable Lower Limb Power-assisted Robots. ACTA AUTOMATICA SINICA, 2020, 46(3): 427-438. doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c180286

穿戴式柔性下肢助力机器人发展现状及关键技术分析

doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c180286
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 51675008

国家自然科学基金 51705007

北京市自然科学基金 3171001

北京市自然科学基金 17L20019

北京市自然科学基金 3202003

北京市教委科技计划 KM201810005015

中国博士后基金 2018T110017

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李剑锋  北京工业大学机械工程与应用电子技术学院教授. 1999年获北京航空航天大学机器人所博士学位.主要研究方向为机器人, 并联机构与穿戴外骨骼技术. E-mail: lijianfeng@bjut.edu.cn

    李国通  北京工业大学机械工程与应用电子技术学院博士研究生. 2016年获得北京联合大学机电学院学士学位.主要研究方向为穿戴外骨骼技术与外固定技术. E-mail: enter1026@163.com

    杨东升  北京航空航天大学机器人研究所博士研究生.主要研究方向为移动机器人, 环境感知和运动控制. E-mail: ydsf16@buaa.edu.cn

    王海东  北京工业大学机械工程与应用电子技术学院硕士研究生. 2017年获得内蒙古大学交通学院学士学位.主要研究方向为穿戴外骨骼技术. E-mail:whd@emails.bjut.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    张雷雨  北京工业大学机械工程与应用电子技术学院讲师. 2016年获北京航空航天大学机器人所博士学位.主要研究方向为机器人, 并联机构与穿戴外骨骼技术.本文通信作者.E-mail: zhangleiyu1988@126.com

Advances and Key Techniques of Soft Wearable Lower Limb Power-assisted Robots

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51675008

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51705007

Natural Science Foundation of Beijing 3171001

Natural Science Foundation of Beijing 17L20019

Natural Science Foundation of Beijing 3202003

Beijing Municipal Education Commission Science and Technology Plan KM201810005015

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation 2018T110017

More Information
    Author Bio:

    LI Jian-Feng   Professor at the College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology. He received his Ph. D. degree from the Robotics Institute, Beihang University in 1999. His research interest covers robot, parallel mechanism, and wearable exoskeleton technology.)

    LI Guo-Tong   Ph.D. candidate at the College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology. He received his bachelor degree from the College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Union University in 2016. His research interest covers wearable exoskeleton technology and external fixation technology.)

    YANG Dong-Sheng   Ph. D. candidate at the Institute of Robotics, Beihang University. His research interest covers mobile robot, environment perception, and motion control.)

    WANG Hai-Dong   Master student at the College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology. He received his bachelor degree from the Transportation Institute, Inner Mongolia University in 2017. His main research interest is wearable exoskeleton technology.)

    Corresponding author: ZHANG Lei-Yu   Lecturer at the College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology. He received his Ph. D. degree from the Robotics Institute, Beihang University in 2016. His research interest covers robot, parallel mechanism, and wearable exoskeleton technology. Corresponding author of this paper.)
  • 摘要: 穿戴式柔性下肢助力机器人技术在康复医疗、助老助残、生活起居等方面具有广阔的应用前景, 具有质量轻、体积小、可穿戴性强、人机相容性好等优势.为促进我国柔性下肢助力机器人的研究和发展, 总结国内外在该领域的研究进展, 阐述了多种助力系统的组成、驱动原理和运动学信息等, 分析了各助力系统的辅助力/矩传递规律及其助力效果.同时, 对柔性下肢助力机器人所涉及的安全与可靠性、步态检测技术、驱动方式及控制策略、助力性能评估等关键技术进行了分析.在总结研究成果及分析关键技术的基础上, 指出柔性下肢助力机器人今后的发展方向、研究思路和面临的挑战.对于柔性下肢助力机器人及相关的研究工作, 具有一定的指导意义.
    Recommended by Associate Editor DENG Fang
    1)  本文责任编委  邓方
  • 图  1  行走助力机器人

    Fig.  1  Orthosis for walking assistance

    图  2  轻质行走助力服

    Fig.  2  Lightweight walking assist wear

    图  3  可穿戴柔性助力服

    Fig.  3  Soft wearable robotic suit

    图  4  交叉线助力服

    Fig.  4  Cross-wire assist suit

    图  5  下肢助力裤

    Fig.  5  Pneumatic lower limb power assist wear

    图  6  膝关节柔性助力服

    Fig.  6  Knee auxiliary power assist suit

    图  7  柔性下肢助力外骨骼

    Fig.  7  Soft lower limb exoskeleton

    图  8  移动式踝助力外骨骼

    Fig.  8  Active autonomous ankle exoskeleton

    图  9  柔性仿生主动矫形器

    Fig.  9  Bio-inspired active soft orthotic

    图  10  柔性气动袜

    Fig.  10  Soft robotic exosock

    图  11  柔性助力外衣

    Fig.  11  Soft exosuit

    图  12  自主助力服

    Fig.  12  Myosuit

    图  13  气动助力服

    Fig.  13  Power assist wear

    图  14  步态辅助机器人

    Fig.  14  Gait-assisted robot

    表  1  单关节助力型机器人

    Table  1  Single joint power-assisted robot

    序号 名称 驱动方式 驱动关节 质量(kg)
    日本中央大学 /
    1 行走助力机器人[29] 气动人工肌肉 -
    膝关节柔性助力服[37]
    2 日本信州大学[31] PVC凝胶驱动器 0.6
    轻质行走助力服
    3 延边大学[26] 电机 2.7
    可穿戴柔性助力服
    4 日本松下电器公司[27] 电机 9.3
    交叉线助力服
    5 首尔国立大学[28] 电机 -
    膝关节助力服
    6 日本冈山大学[36] 气压 1.5
    下肢助力裤
    7 大连理工大学[39] 气压 -
    软式气动助力服
    8 韩国高等科学技术研究所 电机 -
    柔性下肢助力外骨骼[41]
    9 麻省理工学院[42] 电机 10.1
    移动式踝助力外骨骼
    10 哈佛大学[43] 气动人工肌肉 -
    柔性仿生主动矫形器
    11 新加坡国立大学[45] 气压 -
    柔性气动袜
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  多关节协同助力型机器人

    Table  2  Multi-joint coordinated power-assisted robot

    序号 名称 驱动方式 驱动关节 质量(kg)
    1 哈佛大学[20-21] 电机 髋+踝 10.1
    Soft exosuit
    2 苏黎世联邦理工学院 电机 / /
    Myosuit[25] 髋+膝 4.6
    柔性康复助力服[29] 髋+踝
    3 日本冈山大学[22] 气压 髋+膝+踝 3.7
    气动助力服
    4 日本关西学院大学[26] 气动人工肌肉 髋+膝 0.65
    步态辅助机器人
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  各驱动方式的优缺点

    Table  3  The advantages and disadvantages of each drive

    驱动类型 优点 缺点
    电机驱动 1)标准化程度高 1)运动平衡性差
    2)易实现自动化控制 2)易受到外界负载的影响
    3)采用钢丝绳连接, 能量传递方便、信号传递迅速 3)需要输出大功率时, 电机体积大
    4)无污染
    气压驱动 1)质量轻、结构简单 1)难以密封
    2)高功率/质量比 2)不适合低温工作
    3)自然柔顺性 3)易压缩, 难以精确控制
    4)粘性小, 无污染 4)在有负荷的作用下, 速度易发生变动
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-05-07
  • 录用日期:  2018-07-23
  • 刊出日期:  2020-03-30

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